S4 Virtual period: Male reproductive system


Act: Use information from the text book to build a comparison table between sexual and asexual

Functions of each of the organs which are part of the male reproductive system.

Penis Function: The penis serves as the male organ used to deliver semen to the female during intercourse and also houses the urethra, which is used to transport semen and urine.

Function: These tubules produce sperm. The two testes produce testosterone, the primary male sex hormone.

Scrotum Function: Because sperm must be produced and develop at a temperature slightly lower than body temperature, the scrotum serves as a method of maintaining proper temperature control by contracting or relaxing in order to bing the testicles closer or further away from the body.

Carries the urine or sperm to outside the body. During intercourse and ejaculation, only sperm is allowed to flow through the urethra.

Bulbourethral glands   Produce a clear fluid that lubricates the urethra for semen transport and to reduce any acidity in the urethra that is harmful to sperm.
Prostate gland  The prostate gland produces fluids that make up semen. These fluids also supply nutrients to the sperm.
Epididymis Take immature sperm and mature them. Once matured, the epididymis stores mature sperm until climax, when they are carried to the urethra.
Seminal vesicles Attached to the vas deferens, these small “pouches” produce fructose, which supplies sperm with energy so that they may swim to fertilize the egg. The liquid produced by the seminal vesicles constitutes the largest single component of semen volume.
Ejaculatory ducts These ducts empty into the urethra and consist of the vas deferens and seminal vesicles combining together.


4. State the components and the function of semen.

Semen:  Sperm-containing fluid called semen

Sperm exist to unite one half of the man’s DNA with one half of the woman’s. Since it only has a half set of DNA, sperm cells are referred to as haploid, meaning half. These DNA halves combine when the sperm fertilizes a female ova (egg). This creates a complete set of DNA in the fertilized egg, which grows into a human fetus.

It contains sperm cells, which are capable of fertilizing the female eggs. Semen also contains other liquids, known as seminal plasma, which help to keep the sperm cells viable.

5. Make a large labelled drawing of a sperm cell and state how the structure is adapted to its function.

The head contains genetic information and an enzyme to help penetrate the egg cell membrane. The middle section is packed with mitochondria for energy. The tail moves the sperm to the egg.


Publicado en 4AC2018, biology, Ingles | Deja un comentario

Virginia Woolf

In Literature we started reading a sotry named The Girl in the Looking Glass. Before we read ir, we made this acitivity. I worked with Maria Roggero.

write down important facts about her life

-her influence on women writers

-the technique she introduced in Literature


1)-Born in a privilege english household, raised by free-thinking parents

-Raped by her half brothers

-Suffered from deep depression

-her depression got worse when her sister and mother died, and especially when har father died

-Committed suicide


2)While Woolf was alive, she was very criticised since she was a female writer. The fact that Woolf focused on women’s rights and double standards in her time while writing, since she was a feminist, influenced many women to write. Writing, as a profession, was poorly seen when being a woman, but Virginia Woolf opened a door for future women in this profession.


3)Compelling and unusual narrative perspectives, dream-states and free association prose. She walked a fine line between chaos and order when writing her novels. She implements the usage of metaphors, comparisons and imagery in her writing.

Publicado en 4AC2018, Ingles, literature | Deja un comentario

Sex hormones and puberty

Sex hormones and puberty

Publicado el 21/04/2018 por mravagnan

Sex hormones are responsible of the most dramatic changes that occur in the body. They control puberty, egg and sperm production, pregnancy, birth and lactation.

  1. Read the information about Puberty HERE.
  2. State the female and male hormones which are responsible for the development of the secondary sexual characteristics

Female: Luteinising Hormone (LH) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) . They, together stimulate  the production of the sex hormones by the ovaries. ovaries start to produce oestrogen and progesterone which begin the bodily changes that happen during puberty.

Males: The testes start to produce testosterone which begins the development of secondary sexual characteristics.

Build a comparison table between the changes that occur in male and female after puberty.

Search in the internet and summarize the site of production and effects of the following sex hormones:

– FSH, LH, oestrogen, progesterone, oxytocine, Hcg, prolactine and testosterone.

FSH:  is produced in the anterior pituitary via gonadotroph cells. The target tissue of FSH in males are the sertoli cells within the testes and in the female the granulosa cells of the ovary and  it also stimulates follicular development and oestradiol synthesis. FSH stimulates the maturation of germ cells within the testes and ovaries.

LH: LH is a type of glycoprotein that is produced in the anterior pituitary via gonadotroph cells and serves to regulate the function of the gonads. In males LH stimulates the production and secretion of testosterone from the testes via leydig cells. In females LH stimulates the production of oestrogens and progesterone from the ovary via theca interna cells and luteal cells.

Oestrogen:  secreted by the ovaries. it stops FSH being produced – so that only one egg matures in a cycle and  stimulates the pituitary gland to release the hormone LH.

Progesterone: hormone secreted by ovaries. It maintains the lining of the uterus during the middle part of the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy.

Oxytocine: neuropeptide  which is synthesised in the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary. OT is primarily involved in upregulating the activity of smooth muscle cells in the uterus and the smooth muscles surrounding the alveoli ducts of the mammary glands. At parturition, OT causes strong contractions from the myometrium.

HCG: made by cells formed in the placenta, which nourishes the egg after it has been fertilized and becomes attached to the uterine wall.

Prolactine: hormone that stimulates lactation (production of breast milk). Benign tumors of the pituitary gland that produce prolactin, thereby causing higher than normal blood prolactin concentrations.

Tetosterone: Controls puberty in males. Testosterone moves through our blood to do its work.


  1. The chart shows the ages at which the changes associated with puberty take place in boys and girls. Answer questions a, b, c, d and e.

(a) What is the most common age at which boys undergo the changes of puberty?


(b) If a girl had not started menstruation by the age of 15, would this be cause for concern?


(c) Which two features of puberty show the greatest range in the times at which they  occur.

(d) Is it unusual for a girl of 9 years to start her menstrual periods?


(e) On average, is it boys or girls who first show the onset of puberty?


Publicado en 4AC2018, biology, Ingles | 1 comentario

The Hollow of the Three Hills

The Hollow of the Three Hills is a very interesting gothic story written by Nathaniel  Hawothrone that tackles different gothic elements.

First, I created a Powtoon which shows the tipical gothic elements…

So we can say that this story is gothic since it accomplish the gothic characteristcs.

The story was set in a desolated space, away from society and movement, far from civilization.  There was an atmosphere of mistery, fulled of hidden secrets that thratened the protagonist (young lady). At the same time the young lady was in state of isolation, she was alone. By that I mean not only physical but also emotional.

Furhtermore, as every gothic story there is a supernatural aspect. In this case the supernatural event is that the old lady is a which who can connect the woman with the people she had asked for, blakc magic can be said. That means that the story counts with visions, since the you lady is able to hears her family, achiving another characteristic of the gothic elements.

Publicado en 4AC2018, Eportfolio, Ingles | Deja un comentario

Guión Martin Fierro


– Mientras suene el encordao,

mientras encuentre el compas,

yo no he de quedarme atrás,

sin defender la parada;

y he jurado que jamás,

me la han de llevar robada.


Tiemple y cantaremos juntos;
Trasnochadas no acobardan.
Los concurrentes aguardan,
Y porque el tiempo no pierdan,
Haremos gemir las cuerdas
Hasta que las velas no ardan-



-Yo no soy, señores míos,
Sino un pobre guitarrero,
Pero doy gracias al Cielo
Porque puedo, en la ocasión,
Toparme con un cantor
Que esperimente a este negro.


El negro es muy amoroso,
Aunque de esto no hace gala;
Nada a su cariño iguala
Ni a su tierna voluntá;
Es lo mesmo que el macá:
Cría los hijos bajo el ala.


Estoy, pues, a su mandao;
Empiece a echarme la sonda,
Si gusta que le responda,
Aunque con lenguaje tosco:
En leturas no conozco
La jota, por ser redonda. –



– !Ah, negro!, si sos tan sabio
No tengás ningun recelo
Pero has tragao el anzuelo
Y al compás del estrumento
Has de decirme al momento
Cuál es el canto del cielo. –


MORENO– Pinta el blanco negro al diablo,
Y el negro, blanco lo pinta;
Blanca la cara o retinta
No habla en contra ni en favor:
De los hombres el Criador
No hizo dos clases distintas.


Los cielos lloran y cantan
Hasta en el mayor silencio:
Lloran al cair el rocío
Cantan al silbar los vientos
Lloran cuando cain las aguas.
Cantan cuando brama el trueno. –



– Dios hizo al blanco y al negro
Sin declarar los mejores;
Les mandó iguales dolores
Bajo de una mesma cruz;
Mas también hizo la luz
Pa distinguir los coIores.


Y ansí me gusta un cantor
Que no se turba ni yerra;
Y si en tu saber se encierra
El de los sabios projundos;
Decíme cual en el mundo
Es el canto de la tierra. –



-Y le daré una respuesta
Sigún mis pocos alcances:
Forman un canto en la tierra
El dolor de tanta madre,
El gemir de los que mueren
Y el llorar de los que nacen. –

MARTÍN FIERRO – Me gusta, negro ladino,
Lo que acabás de esplicar;
Ya te empiezo a respetar;
Aundue al principio me rei,
Y te quiero preguntar
Lo que entendés por la ley. –

MORENO– Dende que elige a su gusto,
Lo más espinoso elige;
Pero esto poco me aflige
Y le contesto a mi modo:
La ley se hace para todos,
Mas sólo al pobre le rige. –


MARTÍN FIERRO– No ha de decirse jamás
Que abusé de tu pacencia,
Y en justa correspondencia,
Si algo querés preguntar,
Podés al punto empezar,
Pues ya tenés mi licencia.


MORENO – Voy a hacerle mis preguntas,
Ya que a tanto nne convida,
Y vencerá en la partida
Si una esplicación me da
Sobre el tiempo y la medida,
El peso y la cantidá.


MARTÍN FIERRO– Uno es el sol, uno el mundo,
Sola y única es la luna
Ansí han de saber que Dios
No crió cantidá ninguna.

El ser de todos los seres
Solo formo la unidá;
Lo demás lo ha criado el hombre
Después que aprendió a contar.

MORENO – Si responde a esta pregunta
Tengase por vencedor
(Doy la derecha al mejor);
Y respóndame al momento:
Cuando formó Dios el tiempo
Y por que lo dividió?


Moreno, voy a decir,
Sigún mi saber alcanza:
El tiempo sólo es tardanza
De lo que está por venir;

No tuvo nunca principio
Ni jamás acabará,
Porque el tiempo es una rueda.
Y rueda es eternidá.


Ansi prepará, moreno,
Cuanto tu saber encierre,
Y sin que tu lengua yerre,
Me has de decir lo que empriende;
El que del tiempo depende,
En los meses que train erre.


MORENO – De la inorancia de naides
Ninguno debe abusar;
Y aunque me puede doblar
Todo el que tenga más arte,
No voy a ninguna parte
A dejarme machetiar.


Es güena ley que el más lerdo
Debe perder la carrera;
Ansí le pasa a cualquiera,
Cuando en competencia se halla
Un cantor de media talla
con otro de talla entera.


Ya saben que de mi madre
Jueron diez los que nacieron,
Mas ya no esiste el primero
Y mas querido de todos:
Murió por injustos modos
A manos de un pendenciero.

Los nueve hermanos restantes
Como güerfanos quedamos;
Dende entonces lo lloramos
Sin consuelo, creanmeló,
Y al hombre que lo mató,
Nunca jamás lo encontramos.

Y queden en paz los güesos
De aquel hermano querido;
A moverlos no he venido,
Mas, si el caso se presienta,
Espero en Dios que esta cuenta
Se arregle como es debido.

Y si otra ocasión payamos
Para que esto se complete,
Por mucho que lo respete,
Cantaremos, si le gusta,
Sobre las muertes injustas.
Que algunos hombres cometen.

Y aquí, pues, señores míos,
Diré, como en despedida,
Que todavía andan con vida
Los hermanos del dijunto,
Que recuerdan este asunto
Y aquella muerte no olvidan.


MARTÍN FIERRO– Al fin cerrastes el pico
Después de tanto charlar;
Ya empezaba a maliciar,
Al verte tan entonao,
Que traías un embuchao
Y no lo querías largar.

Y ya que nos conocemos,
Basta de conversación;
Para encontrar la ocasión
No tienen que darse priesa;
Ya conozco yo que empieza
Otra clase de junción.

Publicado en 4AC2018, Castellano, lengua | Deja un comentario

The eye as a sense organ



Study the structure and functions of the human eye HERE, and complete pages 9 and 10 from the booklet.


Watch the video!

Booklet Act: COMPLETE questions 4 c and d on page 10.



  • In pairs,  add a video which shows the pupil reflex in your eyes.

(Male, is the video I send you by E-mail, it is too heavy to post it here)

  • Using your reflex actions´knowledge , sketch the sequence of the pupil reflex. State the stimulus, receptors, coordinator, effector, effect, response and all the neurones involved.

Stimulus receptorscoordenator – effector – effect- response.

(Bright Light)cones brain- muscles in iris- circular muscles contract & cardial muscles relax) – pupil

  • What is the importance of this reflex?
  • Booklet act: COMPLETE questions 1 b and c on page 9.


  • Play this animation about focusing a close or distant object and answer the interactive questions.
  • Booklet act.: Answer questions 2 and 4 a and b.


Let´s discuss about them HERE!

Connections between the nervous system and the eye as a sense organ.

Booklet act: Answer question 5 on page 10.

Publicado en 4AC2018, biology, Ingles | Deja un comentario

“Rooms” & “Home is so Sad”

In our literature class, we first analyzed a poem called “Rooms” by Charlotte Mew, and carried out an activty:


Then, we studied another poem named “Home is so Sad” and we made another activity, where we had to compare the different poems:



Publicado en 4AC2018, Ingles, literature | Deja un comentario

Biology virtual period: Reflex arcs

Read page 5 from HERE.

  • Act: Answer the interactive question and post a screenshot with the answers.

  • Film 2 examples which show reflex actions. (BE CAREFUL IN USING HOT OBJECTS! MIMICS ARE ACCEPTED!)


A hand hovers over a burning flame. The reflex action is to move the hand away

Male, the videos I made are too heavy to out it in this post, I’ll send them to you by email.

For each example, name the structures involved:

stimulis __  receptor __coordinator __effector __ response

?                     ?                        ?                          ?             ?

  1. Receptor in the skin detects a stimulus (the change in temperature, a change in the environmet).
  2. Sensory neurone sends impulses to relay neurone.
  3. Motor neurone sends impulses to effector.
  4. Effector produces a response (muscle contracts to move hand away).
Publicado en 4AC2018, biology, Ingles | Deja un comentario

Biology virtual period: Nervous system: neurones and synapse

  1. ANATOMY OF A NEURONE: Watch THIS video!
  • Act: State how the structure of a neurone is related to the function.

A neurone has three main functions:

  1. Receive signals
  2. Integrate incoming signals
  3. Communicate signals to other neurons or muscles or glands.

Its structure is related to those functions since the first two neuronal functions (receiving and processing incoming information) generally take place in the dendrites.  A single neuron may have a lot of dendrites, so it can communicate with thousands of other cells but only one axon (which passes the nerve impulses on to other cells).

The special shape that a neurone has, lets pass signals from one cell to another. Since it has  long extentions, it is able to  send signals far away from the
neurone cell body.

2. TYPES OF NEURONES: Read “overiew of neurone structure and function   from HERE  .

  • Act: Make a labelled drawing of each of the three types of neurones, motor, sensory and relay, and state their functions.


Sensory neurons: get information about what’s going on inside and outside of the body and bring that information into the CNS so it can be processed.  Meaning that they  carry signals from receptors to the spinal cord and brain.

Motor neurons: get information from other neurons and convey commands to your muscles, organs and glands. This means that they carry the signals from the CNS  effectors.

Relay neurones:  carry messages from one part of the CNS to another.



  • Act: Post a short video explaining synapse.
  • Act: Describe in your own words how nerve impulses are transmitted from neurone to neurone.

( I made both task as one)

It is like the nerve impulses have a domino effect. Each neuron receives an impulse and must pass it on to the next neuron and make sure the correct impulse continues into another one.  By a chain of chemical events, the dendrites picks up an impulse that’s shuttled through the axon and transmitted to the next neuron. This is called synapse.

This videos explains the synaptic transmission. It says that most of the communication between the neurones occures in a structure called “Synapse”. There, both naurones are able to pass the information (chemical signals) from one cell to the other. The video states that there is a neurone called “Presynaptic Neurone” which is where the signals are iniciated, while the other neurone, the one who recives the message is named “Postsynaptic Neuron”

The video also shows that the two neurones are separated by the synaptic cleft (which is a very, VERY, short space between the neurones).

It also explains that the neurotransmitters (chemical signals) are present in the Presynoptic Neuron, and that they are packed into vesicles. When that neurone recives an electrical signal (Action Potential), it gets excited and leads the vesicles release their contet into the synaptic cleft.

Once in the synaptic cleft, the receptors in the postsynaptic neurone membare interact with the neurotransmitters and is able to catch the information.

As a consequence, the neurotransmitter molecules are cleaned away form the synaptic cleft (some ones by diffusion and in some cases it is send back to the presynaptic neurone by reuptake).

Publicado en 4AC2018, biology, Ingles | Deja un comentario

Virtual Period: Endocrine system: adrenaline and ADH

  1. Study the effects of adrenaline and ADH after reading this link.

Act: a- Use bullet points to summarise the effects of adrenaline.

  • Raises blood sugar levels since it stimulates the liver to change glycogen into glucose
  • Generates fatty tissue to release fat into the blood
  • Increases the heart rate
  • Increases blood flow to the muscles
  • Reduces blood flow to the skin and the intestines
  • Widens the bronchioles
  • Dilates the pupils

Describe 3 situations in which adrenaline is secreted. Post a picture to show the examples.

It can be when someone is full of stress or under a lot of pressure, like for example in an exmam or having family problems, lack of money.


Draw a flow chart to show the effects of ADH:

– when there is TOO LITTLE WATER in the body.

hypothalamus –>pituitary –> travels in the blood –> kidneys–> urine becomes less in volume and more concentrated.

– when there is MUCH WATER in the body.

hypothalamus –>pituitary  (production of ADH will stop) –>kidneys will not save  much water –> urine becomes dilute and of greater volume –>level of water in the blood then begins to fall towards the ideal level.




Publicado en 4AC2018, biology, Ingles | 1 comentario